People at whom the need for success, as a rule, prevails are not inclined to risk, are capable to take the responsibility. As marks out Mac-Klelland: "Recently, as the requirement of success is strongly developed at the person. He can succeed never if it has for this purpose no opportunities if its organization on provides it sufficient degree of an initiative and will not reward it that it does". The organization has to provide to such people big degree of independence and opportunity to finish business.
David Mac-Klelland's theory gives a bit different classification of requirements. He considered that 3 requirements are inherent in people: authorities, success and participation. At different people this or that of them can dominate. The requirement of the power is expressed as desire to influence other people. People with requirement of the power it is not obligatory the careerists yearning for power the negative and most used value of this word. If these people have no tendency to adventurism and tyranny, these people are excellent organizers and best of all show the abilities, influencing other people.
It is possible to agree with Maslou how he shared requirements on groups, but first, the behavior of the person is not always defined by the lower unsatisfied requirement (for example, the person because of self-respect can neglect the safety) and, secondly, if the requirement is satisfied, not always it stops influencing motiviruyushche (it is admissible, need for respect).
According to Maslou's theory all these requirements can be spread out in the form of strict hierarchical structure in which they settle down according to a priority. The behavior of the person is defined by the lowermost unsatisfied need for hierarchical structure. After the requirement is satisfied, its motivating influence stops.
Research of operations and models. In essence, research of operations is an application of methods of scientific research to operational problems of the organization. After statement of a problem group of specialists in research of operations develop situation model. The model is a form of representation of reality. Usually the model simplifies reality or represents it abstractly. Models facilitate understanding of difficulties of reality. The models developed in research of operations simplify complex problems, reducing number of variables to the operated quantity.
Motives of work are various. They share on requirements which the worker seeks to satisfy by means of work, on those benefits which are required for satisfaction of requirements, at that price which the worker is ready to pay for receiving the required benefits. The general at them always only that satisfaction of requirements, receiving the desirable benefits are surely connected with work.
The social requirements sometimes called by potrenost in participation, including feeling of belonging to someone or to something, feeling that you are accepted by others, feeling of social interaction, attachment and support.
Various theories of motivation divide into two categories: substantial and procedural. Substantial theories of motivation are based on identification of those internal motives (called by requirements) which force to work so, but not differently. In this regard some aspects of theories of Abraham Maslou, David Mac-Klelland, Frederik Gertsberg and some other researchers interesting us will be described. More modern theories of motivation are based first of all how people taking into account their perception and knowledge behave. The main procedural theories, is a theory of expectation, the theory of a and model of motivation of Porter-Loulera.
The famous Austrian scientist V. Frankl gave the thorough analysis of one more human requirement - need for meaning of life. He considered need for meaning of life as the most important in structure of the personality, concerning different types of activity of people, including and labor.
Primary requirements are put genetically, and secondary are usually realized with experience. As people have various gained experience, a secondary need of people differ more than the primary.
Authors who wrote about scientific management, generally devoted the researches to that is called as production management. They were engaged in increase of efficiency at the level below the administrative. With emergence of administrative school experts started developing constantly approaches to improvement of management of the organization in general.