Digestion begins already in a mouth: the saliva contains enzyme amylase (α ~ 1,4 –, splitting α ~ 1,4 glikozidny communications. As the food in a mouth stays not for long, starch is digested only partially here. As the main place of a pervarivaniye of starch the small intestine where amylase as a part of pancreas juice arrives serves. Amylase does not hydrolyze glikozidny communication in bioses therefore the main product of effect of kishechy amylase is biose a maltose.
Digestion of proteins comes to the end in the top department of a small intestine under the influence of enzymes of a pancreas and cells of intestines. These cages produce a number of pro-enzymes (,, prokarbopeptidaza And and In,. After catalytic education in pro-enzymes of the active center and an otshchepleniye of part of molecules, these proteins turn respectively into enzymes: Trypsin, Chymotrypsin, Karbopeptidaza And and In and to Elastaz.
Reactions of hydrolysis are exposed the most various substances. So in the course of digestion high-molecular substances (proteins, fats, polysaccharides, etc.) are exposed to fermentativny hydrolysis with formation of low-molecular connections (respectively, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerin, glucose, etc.).
In a chemical formula they are traditionally designated by a sign ~ (tildes. In ADF molecule only one high-energy communication; as a result of synthesis of ATP by okilitelny phosphorylation one more is added, i.e. energy of oxidation of a substratum is transformed to energy of chemical bonds in an ATP molecule.
Hydrolysis of proteins. Albumens make an enormous class organic, that is carbonaceous, namely the nitrogenous connections which are inevitably met in each organism. The role of proteins in an organism is huge. Without proteins or their components – amino acids – reproduction of the basic structural elements of bodies and fabrics, and also formation of a number of the major substances, as, for example, enzymes and hormones cannot be provided. Proteins of food before to be used for creation of tissues of body, are split previously. The organism uses for food not food protein, but its structural elements – amino acids and, maybe, partially the elementary peptides from which then in cages albumens, specific to this type of an organism, are synthesized.
ATP, in turn, under the influence of other enzyme transfers trailer phosphatic group to molecules of organic compounds with smaller energy, than ATP, thereby reserving in them energy. Thus ADF is formed again:
The substances monomers which are formed in the course of digestion of food, enter in a row reactions. In many of them they are oxidized, and the energy which is distinguished at this oxidation is used for synthesis of ATP from ADF – the main process of accumulation of energy in live organisms. This energy is necessary for growth and normal functioning of an organism. The person receives it as due to multistage process of oxidation of food – proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and due to hydrolysis of some esters, amides, peptides and a glikozido. However the main power source for many biological processes – biosynthesis of protein, an ionic trasport, reduction of muscles, electric activity of nervous cages – is (ATP).
Without this process there would be possible no digestion of foodstuff as small molecules are capable to be exhausted in intestines only relatively. So, for example, digestion of polysaccharides and bioses becomes possible only after their full hydrolysis by enzymes to monosaccharides. In the same way proteins and lipids are hydrolyzed to substances which can be acquired only then. Let's consider the main reactions of hydrolysis proceeding in an organism.
Karbopeptidaza – an ekzopeptidaza. They hydrolyze the peptide communication formed by the trailer amino-acid rest. Karbopeptidaza And chips off mainly trailer amino acids with the hydrophobic radical, and a karboksipeptidaza In – the remains of a lysine and arginin.
The reviewed examples prove an enormous role of hydrolysis in processes of activity of an organism: Processes of food and allocation, maintenance of a homeostasis (constancy of the environment) and an energy pereraspredelniya are based on it.